3º ESO

 TEXT BOOK AND CONTENTS




1st EVALUATION

Unit 20. Geographical Skills
Map skills, cross-sections, contours and relief, using photograhs in geography, drawing sketch maps, types of maps and types of graphs...

Unit 1. Rivers

1. The main features of a river basin
How rivers form...

Upper-course river features




Main features of a river. Watch it!!!

2. How rivers shape the land
River processes: erosion & transportation


How waterfalls are formed...



3. Meanders and oxbow lakes
See how oxbow lakes are formed...



4. When the river approaches to its mouth
Art:Some features of a river and its basin, such as branches and valleys, occur several times in its course. As it approaches its mouth, the river becomes wider and tends to flow more slowly.

5. The main causes of river flooding

River Flood Informationthumbnail

EXAM UNIT 1.
WEDNESDAY 2th NOVEMBER



UNIT 2. COASTS

1. COASTAL EROSION


The anatomy of a wave


Types of waves



Headlands and bays



Cliffs and wave-cut platforms


Caves, arches, stacks and stumps



2. COASTAL TRANSPORTATION





The longshore drift

File:Longshore drift.svg

Transportation up and down a beach




3. COASTAL LANDFORMS
Spits





Bars





4. HUMAN RESPONSES








EXAM UNIT 2.
THURSDAY 17th NOVEMBER


Unit 3. Glaciation





Formation of a corrie












2nd EVALUATION




UNIT 5. PLATE TECTONICS


Tectonic Plates Map

Find a Volcano by Region

World Map of Volcanic Regions


Earthquakes map around world


TYPES OF MARGINS
1. Destructive

2. Collision

3. Constructive

4. Conservative

Earthquake effects:
Primary and Secondary

Primary Effects
They happen inmediately and are due to the shaking of the ground

Secondary Effects
Thye happen afterwards and are a result of the damage done by the initial tremors

How to reduce earthquake effects?
Predicting and Preparing

PREDICTING
Seismometers, mapping previous earthquakes, plotting earthquakes regularly and unusual animal behaviour
     


PREPARING
Disasters plan, training emergency services, organising emergency supplies, setting an earthquake warning system, building regulations

   
 



Volcanic effects
Immediate effects and longer-term effects


IMMEDIATE EFFECTS
 

LONGER- TERM EFFECTS

   

How to reduce the effects of a volcanic eruption?
Predicting and Preparing

PREDICTING
Seismometers, satellites for heat seeking, tiltmeters for slope changes, GPS and observing previous activity


   

PREPARING
Warning systems, evacuation plan, emergency services, emergency supplies, "after-eruption" plan to return

 
   

 



LIVING IN A DANGER ZONE

Fertile soil
 



Geothermal Energy
 


Valuable raw materials
   


Tourism


 

 





The advantages and disadvantages of living near a volcano. Watch it now!!!


UNIT 6. WEATHER AND CLIMATE
FACTORS THAT AFFECT TEMPERATURE


Latitude
Distance from the sea
Prevaling winds
Altitude or height of the land

TYPES OF RAINFALL
Relief rainfall
Frontal rainfall
Convectional rainfall

DEPRESSIONS AND ANTICYCLONES


UNIT 7. THE WORLD'S MAIN CLIMATES
EQUATORIAL CLIMATE
TROPICAL CLIMATE
MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE
COLD CLIMATES







FACTORS THAT AFFECT TEMPERATURE
by Marta Lázaro

TYPES OF RAIN
by Rocío Muñoz

CLIMATE GRAPHS


CREATE YOUR OWN CLIMATE GRAPH WITH THIS "Generador de Climogramas"


SEE AN INTERACTIVE CLIMATE MAP  and LEARN HOW TO COMMENT A CLIMATE GRAPH
at




 HOW TO COMMENT A CLIMATE GRAPH:



This climate is cold climate because the annual average temperature is about -30º C.  The coldest month is February with around -45º C. The warmest month is July with around -10º C. The annual range of temperature is -35º C. It is very high and it indicates that is continental. There is no sea or ocean close to moderate its temperature. It is probably located inland.

Because the highest temperatures are taking place during the months of June, July and August it belongs to the northern hemisphere. Looking at the line which represents the temperature it seems to have two seasons, although the warmest can not be named as real summer there is a period of the year where the landscape can experiment some changes.

The amount of rainfall is around 134 mm throughout the year. It tells about its dry condition. It is a desert climate, a cold desert climate. The wettest month is December with around 30 mm and the driest is June with around 3 mm. Due to the low temperature winter precipitation probably falls as snow.

Temperatures are much higher than the amount of water so there could be a drought period. Due to the lack of water, vegetation can not be abundant. The lack of water shows a scarcely populated landscape and few animal species.

As a conclusion this climate can be classified as cold desert climate.


SEE THIS LINK:


Here you have some information about EQUATORIAL, TROPICAL, MEDITERRANEAN AND COLD climates.
See pages 92, 93, 94 and 95 of your text book.
Activities 1, 2 and 3 of each page are very good practice. Try them!







CREATIVE CLIMATES ACTIVITY:
Your Mission
As head of the new National Geographic Climate Observation Post, you need to create a Climate Map to illustrate the world's different climate zones.
Follow the instructions at...




Unit 7. World Climates
Do you want to know about the worst droughts, the damage they cause and how to prepared yourself?
Click on DROUGHT




TOP DROUGHT VIDEOS

SOUTH EAST ASIA DROUGHT
 


AUSTRALIAN DROUGHT CRISIS





DROUGHTS AND HURRICANES
When weather conditions are severe the effects on communities can be devastating. It is impossible to prevent weather from affecting a region but there are measures which can be taken in order to minimise the impact.

Click on the symbol ©,
read the information
and
try a TEST BITE



Learn more on hurricanes:

1. How a hurricane is born.

2. Hurricane destruction.




Learn on GLOBAL WARMING:
CAUSES AND EFFECTS

1. KIRIBATI ISLAND ARTICLE

"Endangered Pacific islet facing mass relocation"

AFTER READING THE ARTICLE...Answer the following questions in your exercise book:

1.      When was this article posted?

2.      When did the “World Environment Day” take place? (Day and month)

3. Is there a "World Environment Day" for 2011?

4. Where is the island of Kiribati?

5. How many inhabitants are in Kiribati?

6. What problem is Kiribati's population facing?

7. What is the name of Kiribati's president?

8. What is the option for Kiribati's inhabitants?

9. Which country is already helping from Kiribati?

10. Could you think in any other solution(s)?


2. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING?

3. GLOBAL WARMING EFFECTS ON AGRICULTURE.


4. GREENHOUSE EFFECT.




5. WHAT WILL BE THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING IN MELILLA?

GLOBAL WARMING BY
"Carlos Molina, 3º F"


UNIT 9. POPULATION

1. The uneven distribution of the population.
Why is the distribution of the population uneven?

The Earth at Night Map shows over 200 cities. It is a unique perspective of the dark side of our planet. This image reveals night lights as low as a 100 watt bulb to as large and intense as a fire. This night map reveals the spread of man and his technology.

ACTIVITIES
A. What does the photo suggest you? Write a paragraph in your notebook.

B. Read the following article and prepare three questions:

C. Video on Human Geography- Population
This video shows how population has increased over time, and where in the world it has increased? What do you notice? This is an example of Human Geography, can you think of any other examples of Human Geography?

D. Video on Population Growth
The growing world population affects food and water supplies, ecological balance, and the overall quality of life for everyone. This animation presents a variety of facts and projected statistics to reveal the severity of our growing population.


2. Predicted trends in population growth
What differences can you see between developing countries and developed countries?

3. The demographic transition model

Watch this video and understand how the demographic transition model works:

How does the demographic transition model help explain the five changes in population growth as shown on the diagram?


4. Differences between countries
Why do families in developing countries have four or more children?
Why do families in developed countries have two or fewer children?

5. Overpopulation


What is meant by the term overpopulation?

6. Population structures
What do population pyramids show?


Understanding population pyramids

How do population pyramids help us learn about population?

7. China
Do you know what effect has the one-child policy had on China's population structure?

A incredibly brief overview of some of the results of China's "One-Child" Policy.

8. The problems of an ageing population
What are some problems created by an increase in life expectancy for people in the over-65 age group?


Watch this video and answer the following questions:

1. What is this video about?
2. What are the consequences of the ageing population?
3. Why do governments spend so much money in the old people?
4. What are the positive and "funny" aspects of having too many old people?
5. What is your opinion on "Ageing Population"?




9. Migration
What is the difference between an emigrant and an immigrant?

10. Rural-urban migration

What are rural push factors and urban pull factors?

11. How migration affects different countries

Why do a developed country need foreign workers?

12. Refugees and illegal immigrants



What is the difference between a refugee and an illegal immigrant?